Thom, you can take back your own "Filter Bubble" by not using Google and adding a little armor plating to your browser. Personally I use DuckDuckGo https://duckduckgo.com/ as my search engine as the results are pretty relevent and the search tools they have are getting really good. Ideally you want to anonimize your browsing and reduce your browser's surface area to advertisers and other 3rd party servers, your browser shouldonly be talking to the servers you are actually connectinog to, not the advertisers that are running through them as there are many cases where the advertisers used by major sites have been hacked and serve out malware to anyone visiting those sites.
All of these solutions are free and most of them are open source, and all of that convenience is still there, you just log out of the site to keep them from being able to track you when you are not using specifically their site, like Facebook, when you aren't checking it, these tools will keep those Facebook "Like" buttons you see everywhere from tracking what web pages and articles you are reading.
Firefox has an opt out "Do Not Track Me" option, it's located at Edit>Prefrences>Privacy as a caller stated, you can use addons https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/ like Adblock Plus, Ghostery, , the MAFIAAFire addons, BeefTACO, RightToClick etc. Another great one is HTTPS Everywhere, made by the Electronic Fronteir Foundation https://www.eff.org/https-everywhere
If you have to use Flash you should use the open source versions like Lightspark or Gnash and also use Better Privacy, and FlashBlock to prevent Flash cookies from installing and to minimize malware vectors.
What is really scary is that Google not only knows your search they have your Android phone with a GPS tracker in it, as well as Chrome browser, Google Earth, Google Desktop, Picasa Photo manager, GTalk chat, Google Docs, GMail, on your desktop. Not ony that but they are now pushing Laptops and Desktops running their custom OS called ChromeOS, which means Google has an inteligence infastructure that puts the feds to shame.
Shame that the OptimizeGoogle http://sourceforge.net/projects/optimizegoogle/ firefox addon project has died due to the developer nolonger having the time to chase after Google's constant changes to their site to prevent the scrambling of all Google tracking methods* while still giving full access to the site. * Void if you are logged in to Google.
The Onion Router is another great tool https://www.torproject.org/
As to using other computers, you can use Portable Apps http://portableapps.com/ on a USB stick on Windows to carry around your own personal and secured browser with you, for even better security you can make a Linux Live USB stick and just reboot the computer so that you are running not just a few custom apps on someone else's install, but your own completely custom operating system, I used this when I was in university as I didn't have the money to replace my dead laptop, they allowed me to use any computer with a boot from USB option to run everything I needed.
Now if only we could get more people to use Linux, Mint and Ubutnu are the best choices for someone comming fromWindows or OS X.