Talion Law was born in the ancient civiization (considered first civilization) of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia. Not quite 'modern'.
Talion Law forms the basis of 'justice' in all three religions -- Hebrew, Christianity, and Islam. They all embraced aspects of this eye-for-an-eye, tooth-for-a-tooth view of justice. And for those religious converts who aren't educated in any further theological fine points, this boils down to the cultural expression of VENGEANCE.
The three Talion-based religions make the world miserable with their endless rounds of revenge.
The Old Testament Christians -- that is, today's Dominionists -- are now dominating our politics and trying to thoroughly take over the public arena and our private lives too.
New Testament Christianity -- particularly the Born Again Christianists -- also fail to make a positive contribution. They seem to be over-challenged by the message of pursuing the feeling of Christ-inspired, non-stop LOVE; and so, psychologically they end-up feeling inadequate, conflicted, and full of dissatisfaction and fear. I think their myth makes them sick.
Now when Buddha taught "do no harm" and when the Dalai Lama says be "kind" -- these were valuable messages for getting along. But this avenue of human behavior improvement was the first to be quashed by colonialism -- and the invaders from the west made Buddhism a minor religion in China, challenged it in Indo-China, the Phillipines, Indonesia, and Tibet, and attempted the same in India, but there are just too many Indians (even after the British starved millions without a blink of their British eyes). Kindness might have been the most promising avenue before it got taken out by the colonial economic machinery of Imperialism.
My point being, the other religions -- those eye-for-an-eye religions -- are preserved so well into the present era because they do such a good job of serving the Imperialist goals of destabilization and theft.